The Constitution of the Roman Republic
Suggello della Repubblica può essere considerata la Costituzione, proclamata in Campidoglio il 3 luglio 1849, quando già le truppe francesi avevano occupato la città. Si tratta di un testo organico e ben equilibrato in ogni sua parte, che deve la sua ispirazione a Mazzini e alla tradizione democratica affermatasi con la Rivoluzione francese.
The Constitution may be considered the seal of the Republic: it was proclaimed on the Capitoline hill on July 3, 1849, when the French troops had already occupied Rome. This is a comprehensive and well-balanced text, which owes much of its inspiration to Mazzini and the democratic tradition stemming from the French Revolution. It was written by a commission which included, among others, Quirico Filopanti, Giuseppe Galletti, Enrico Cernuschi, Cesare Agostini, but not Giuseppe Mazzini who was more for a declaration of intent more than a constitutional text. Of the fundamental principles that underlie the Constitution, two stand out in particular: the third, which established a social commitment to the improvement of moral and material conditions of all citizens, and the seventh, which reiterated the principle of the separation between church and state. The fourth principle, clearly inspired by Mazzini, stated that "the Republic recognizes all people as brothers, respects all nationalities, and fights for Italy."
This constitution, wrote Bolton King, an English commentator, " brought a new era to Rome, but bravery and wisdom were unavailing, and the city was forced back.